Leveraging the global value chain (GVC) framework, Duke CGGC conducts industry-centric research on economic globalization that highlights linkages across geographic space. This has helped inform decision-making for stakeholders throughout the continent. Our work in Africa has looked at inclusive development, upgrading, and workforce development opportunities for a number of countries in a range of agro-food, light manufacturing, and service industries. The following is a snapshot of our work on Africa:
- Reports: 14
- Publications: 6
- Geographies: 10 countries (Burundi, Egypt, Kenya, Lesotho, Morocco, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tunisia and Uganda)
- Clients: World Bank, International Growth Center (IGC), OECD, Oxfam, RTI International, and USAID/ACDI-VOCA
Dairy Value Chains in East AfricaAlthough regional dairy trade in East Africa is far lower than the global average and only stands at below 1% of regional milk production, its recent rapid growth is promising. The way forward for dairy value chains in Rwanda and Uganda is contingent upon addressing the gap in ‘intangible’ capabilities.
Primates and Beyond: Tourism Value Chains in East AfricaTourism is an important economic driver in Africa. East African Community countries such as Kenya and Tanzania have long been popular safari destinations, with Rwanda and Uganda serving as stops as part of the “Gorilla Express”. As both countries look to diversify their appeal, value chain analysis can provide insight into how domestic businesses can connect with global actors to facilitate upgrading.
Maize Value Chains in East AfricaWhile the global industry is increasingly focused on ethanol production, maize in East Africa is an important food crop. With Kenya serving as significant processor, Ugandan—and Rwandan, to a lesser—producers can play a valuable role in the regional value chain.
Regional Value Chains in East Africa: Summary ReportDespite recent regional improvements in poverty reduction and economic growth rates in East Africa, firm productivity in the region remains low. This contrast creates uncertainty about whether the recent successes will persist without improvements in regional networks of production and trade. In partnership with the IGC, Duke CGGC uses the GVC framework to investigate the opportunities for and constraints to regional integration in three key sectors: dairy processing, maize production, and tourism.
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Public-Private Partnerships in Global Value Chains: Can They Actually Benefit the Poor?Client: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Challenge: The past 15 years has seen a proliferation of PPPs between the private sector and the international development community, yet little is known about their impact on developing countries.
Approach & Outcome: The Duke CGGC research report examined the main concerns over the potential of PPPs to bring about inclusive development: alignment of business and pro-poor development interests; actors and institutions that determine how the system works; and achievable outcomes. The report was based on secondary sources, including partner progress reports, post-project evaluation reports, studies from other development agencies and the global value chain (GVC) literature to analyze partnership outcomes. It also included several phone interviews with development experts.
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Burundi in the Agribusiness, Coffee and Energy Global Value Chains: Skills for Private Sector Development: Project OverviewThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies.
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Burundi in the Energy Global Value Chain: Skills for Private Sector DevelopmentThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies.
Burundi faces high and growing demand for electrical energy. Political and economic instability over the last two decades, however, has undermined the development of the country’s energy sector. With very low installed capacity, Burundi faces significant challenges with respect to energy supplies in the country. 90% of the country’s energy needs are currently met by the burning of biomass, primarily wood, for cooking and heat contributing to deforestation and health care issues, and the lack of electrical energy supply constrains the development of the country in the long term.
As the country continues to rebuild its economy following the end of the crisis, policy makers, donors and the private sector have expressed interest in bolstering the sector, both as a means to promote economic output and also to leverage the sector for improved labor productivity and job creation for the large number of unemployed youth in the country.
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Burundi in the Coffee Global Value Chain: Skills for Private Sector DevelopmentClient: World Bank
Challenge: The coffee sector is crucial to the Burundian economy for a number of reasons. Policy makers, donors and industry actors wanted to identify potential opportunities to improve labor productivity and create jobs for the large number of unemployed youth in the country.
Approach & Outcome: Using the GVC framework, Duke CGGC researched how the global coffee industry is changing and assessed Burundi’s current position in the GVC. The research team highlighted opportunities for Burundi to strengthen its positioning.
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Burundi in the Agribusiness Global Value Chain: Skills for Private Sector DevelopmentThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Agriculture is the central pillar of Burundi’s economy, accounting for more than one third of the country’s GDP and employing virtually the entire rural workforce. With good geographic conditions and a suitable climate to production, the country has the potential to be a strong participant in the regional agricultural market. Yet, after years of conflict, the country faces important productivity, infrastructure and institutional challenges that continue to undermine the development of a market-oriented sector, and agriculture remains a primarily subsistence activity, dominated by smallholders with poor knowledge of modern agricultural practices and weak connections to the formal economy. All these constraints have limited the possibility of the country to participate in the global agribusiness value chain. However, Burundi is experiencing slowly rising incomes, growing domestic demand for foodstuffs and a need to formalize the country’s economy, placing pressure on the agricultural sector to modernize and organize to create productive, off-farm employment opportunities, generate revenues and, importantly for the short-term, contribute to the country’s food security.
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The Tobacco Global Value Chain in Low Income CountriesThis report uses global value chains (GVC) analysis to understand how the changing dynamics of the global tobacco industry are affecting producers in low-income countries that are heavily reliant on the tobacco industry. Increased global adoption of tobacco control measures has raised concerns about whether decreases in demand as a result of tobacco control policies negatively impact small producers and increase poverty. These concerns have led to support for crop substitution strategies, although successful implementation has varied. This report offers new perspectives and avenues for investigating the viability of economic development pathways out of tobacco that are remunerative and sustainable for smallholders.
Capturing the Gains in Africa, Making the Most of Global Value Chain ParticipationThis report was commissioned as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Africa Economic Outlook (AEO)” 2014. It provides a critical overview of the Capturing the Gains (CTG) research findings from Africa across three industries: horticulture, apparel and tourism. Specific emphasis is placed on identifying opportunities and challenges for economic and social upgrading within African GVCs so that workers and small producers can capture a fairer share of the gains from trade and economic growth. The report also offers sector specific GVC policy recommendations for African policy makers.
Realizing the Potential of African Agriculture: Innovations and Market Access for Smallholders FarmersAgriculture increasingly occurs in a context where private entrepreneurs coordinate extensive value chains linking producers to consumers, sometimes across multiple countries. These dynamics drive agricultural development and innovation far more than before across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More providers of knowledge are on the scene, particularly from the private sector and civil society, and they interact in new ways to generate ideas or develop responses to dynamics in agro-food value chains. A growing number of entrepreneurial smallholders are organizing to enter these value chains, but others struggle with the economic marginalization as innovative solutions do not reach them due to missing links in the value chains.
The Fruit and Vegetables Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development: Chapter 2This report shows the shift of fruit and vegetable preparation from rural households to the urban kitchen, and highlights the new skills and global standards required of workers and suppliers in developing countries to meet the needs of global supermarkets. Five countries are covered in this report: Honduras, Chile, Kenya, Morocco, and Jordan.
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The Apparel Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development: Chapter 3Export-processing zones in low-cost countries have become synonymous with globalization, but what is the next step for developing countries in apparel? Outlines the skills required to turn assembly lines into one-stop production centers that include design, logistics and brands. This report analyzes the industry in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Lesotho, and Nicaragua.
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