The apparel global value chain (GVC) has been one of the hallmark cases of globalization, since the establishment of the Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) in the early 1970s through the phase-out of the MFA in 2005. The MFA quota system sparked the spread of global production networks in apparel to every corner of the globe, and MFA phase out has led to predictions that large developing country suppliers such as China and India would dominate apparel GVCs after the mid-2000s.

CGGC researchers have tracked global apparel trends in multiple projects, publications and websites. The apparel industry is analyzed in the North Carolina in the Global Economy website, and it is also one of the four industries covered in the CGGC report on "Skills for Upgrading: Workforce Development and GVCs in Developing Countries" Gary Gereffi and Stacey Frederick have published several articles on apparel GVCs, including a chapter in the World Bank book by Cattaneo, Gereffi and Staritz (eds.), Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective (2010), and Frederick has collaborated with Cornelia Staritz in developing a series of detailed country case studies for another World Bank book by Lopez—Acevedo and Robertson (eds.), Sewing Success? Employment, Wages and Poverty Following the End of the Multi-fibre Arrangement (2012).

Nicaragua and the Apparel Value Chain in the Americas

imageThis report explores how U.S. regional textile and apparel manufacturers are linked to the U.S. industry through textile exports and apparel imports and the the role of trade legislation in the past, present and future of the industry in Nicaragua and the United States.
View Report image Ver Reporte en Español image

The Apparel Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development: Chapter 3

imageExport-processing zones in low-cost countries have become synonymous with globalization, but what is the next step for developing countries in apparel? Outlines the skills required to turn assembly lines into one-stop production centers that include design, logistics and brands.
View Report Chapter 3 image View Report Chapter 3 Executive Summary image View Full Report image View Project Page

Strengthening Nicaragua's Position in the Textile-Apparel Value Chain: Upgrading in the Context of the CAFTA-DR Region

imageThis study examines the competitiveness of the textile-apparel sector in Nicaragua, with the objective of producing a diagnosis of the textile – apparel industry in Nicaragua and the United States, an assessment of the opportunities and obstacles to upgrading, and concrete proposals for steps to be taken in the short and medium term.
View Report image

The Global Apparel Value Chain, Trade And The Crisis : Challenges And Opportunities For Developing Countries

imageThis paper analyzes the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the apparel industry. This paper was commissioned by the World Bank.
View World Bank page View PDF image