Food & Agriculture

We live in a volatile global economy, which impacts the food and agriculture industry in profound ways. Stakeholders are grappling with questions such as:

  1. In the midst of change, where are opportunities that can be leveraged across the value chain?
  2. How can players within the industry partner together to benefit the poor, contributing to inclusive and sustainable development?
  3. How do food and trade affect healthy diets?
Duke CGGC consistently addresses these types of questions through its research. The following is a snapshot of the work Duke CGGC has done related to the food & agriculture industry:
  • Reports: 28
  • Publications: 19
  • Geographies covered: 20 countries throughout Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle East and North America
  • Topic areas: competitiveness, workforce development, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), upgrading, inclusive development and public-private partnerships (PPPs)
  • Clients: The World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, Environmental Defense Fund, Oxfam, OECD, US Department of Defense-Minerva Initiative, Walton Foundation, The World Health Organization, USAID/ACDI-VOCA, The International Growth Centre and RTI International

Russian Wheat Value Chain and Global Food Security

imageThere has obviously been much talk in the news around Russia’s power. From an economic point of view, much of Russia's power is associated with oil and gas. Russia is also currently the top wheat exporter in the world and trade relations contribute to food security among other countries, especially import-dependent regions in the Middle East and North Africa. This has led to some public spats. The Duke CGGC team has outlined the catalysts that have the potential of disrupting Russia's wheat value chain internally and at a global level and what Russia needs to do about this from a policy perspective.
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Maize Value Chains in East Africa

imageWhile the global industry is increasingly focused on ethanol production, maize in East Africa is an important food crop. With Kenya serving as significant processor, Ugandan—and Rwandan, to a lesser—producers can play a valuable role in the regional value chain.
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Regional Value Chains in East Africa: Summary Report

Despite recent regional improvements in poverty reduction and economic growth rates in East Africa, firm productivity in the region remains low. This contrast creates uncertainty about whether the recent successes will persist without improvements in regional networks of production and trade. In partnership with the IGC, Duke CGGC uses the GVC framework to investigate the opportunities for and constraints to regional integration in three key sectors: dairy processing, maize production, and tourism.
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Peru in the Table Grape Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

imageIn a short period of time, Peru has positioned itself as a leading exporter of grapes. This offers a sustainable development, especially in rural areas of the country. The report uses the GVC framework to analyze Peru’s position and potential for upgrading in the industry. This report is part of a Duke CGGC study commissioned by the World Bank in 2015/16 to support the growth and productivity agenda in Peru with a focus on three important industries for the country: table grapes, mining equipment and high quality cotton.
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Pro-Poor Development and Power Asymmetries in Global Value Chains

imageThis report presents the asymmetric power relations in global value chains. It examines the limits of private governance and its development implications for local firms and producers in developing countries by drawing on the cases of apparel, cocoa-chocolate, and sugar-‘soft drink’ global value chains.
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Public-Private Partnerships in Global Value Chains: Can They Actually Benefit the Poor?

imageClient: United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

Challenge: The past 15 years has seen a proliferation of PPPs between the private sector and the international development community, yet little is known about their impact on developing countries.

Approach & Outcome: The Duke CGGC research report examined the main concerns over the potential of PPPs to bring about inclusive development: alignment of business and pro-poor development interests; actors and institutions that determine how the system works; and achievable outcomes. The report was based on secondary sources, including partner progress reports, post-project evaluation reports, studies from other development agencies and the global value chain (GVC) literature to analyze partnership outcomes. It also included several phone interviews with development experts.
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Burundi in the Agribusiness, Coffee and Energy Global Value Chains: Skills for Private Sector Development: Project Overview

imageThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Upgrading in these value chains is dependent on developing new capabilities and generally requires a substantially different set of workers with different skill sets. Knowing the requirements at each stage can help policy makers to prepare the workforce for the needs of future upgrading strategies.
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Burundi in the Coffee Global Value Chain: Skills for Private Sector Development

imageClient: World Bank

Challenge: The coffee sector is crucial to the Burundian economy for a number of reasons. Policy makers, donors and industry actors wanted to identify potential opportunities to improve labor productivity and create jobs for the large number of unemployed youth in the country.

Approach & Outcome: Using the GVC framework, Duke CGGC researched how the global coffee industry is changing and assessed Burundi’s current position in the GVC. The research team highlighted opportunities for Burundi to strengthen its positioning.
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Burundi in the Agribusiness Global Value Chain: Skills for Private Sector Development

imageThe Skills for Private Sector Development Project, commissioned by the Education Division of the World Bank, employed the GVC framework to identify specific workforce development strategies to foster upgrading within three industries crucial to Burundi's economic development: agribusiness, coffee and energy. Agriculture is the central pillar of Burundi’s economy, accounting for more than one third of the country’s GDP and employing virtually the entire rural workforce. With good geographic conditions and a suitable climate to production, the country has the potential to be a strong participant in the regional agricultural market. Yet, after years of conflict, the country faces important productivity, infrastructure and institutional challenges that continue to undermine the development of a market-oriented sector, and agriculture remains a primarily subsistence activity, dominated by smallholders with poor knowledge of modern agricultural practices and weak connections to the formal economy. All these constraints have limited the possibility of the country to participate in the global agribusiness value chain. However, Burundi is experiencing slowly rising incomes, growing domestic demand for foodstuffs and a need to formalize the country’s economy, placing pressure on the agricultural sector to modernize and organize to create productive, off-farm employment opportunities, generate revenues and, importantly for the short-term, contribute to the country’s food security.
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The Tobacco Global Value Chain in Low Income Countries

This report uses global value chains (GVC) analysis to understand how the changing dynamics of the global tobacco industry are affecting producers in low-income countries that are heavily reliant on the tobacco industry. Increased global adoption of tobacco control measures has raised concerns about whether decreases in demand as a result of tobacco control policies negatively impact small producers and increase poverty. These concerns have led to support for crop substitution strategies, although successful implementation has varied. This report offers new perspectives and avenues for investigating the viability of economic development pathways out of tobacco that are remunerative and sustainable for smallholders.
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Capturing the Gains in Africa, Making the Most of Global Value Chain Participation

imageThis report was commissioned as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Africa Economic Outlook (AEO)” 2014. It provides a critical overview of the Capturing the Gains (CTG) research findings from Africa across three industries: horticulture, apparel and tourism. Specific emphasis is placed on identifying opportunities and challenges for economic and social upgrading within African GVCs so that workers and small producers can capture a fairer share of the gains from trade and economic growth. The report also offers sector specific GVC policy recommendations for African policy makers.
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Wheat Value Chains and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa Region

imageThis report focuses on the wheat global value chain in the energy-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, with particular emphasis on Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the UAE. It is funded by a grant to Duke from the US Department of Defense's MINERVA Initiative.
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Realizing the Potential of African Agriculture: Innovations and Market Access for Smallholders Farmers

imageAgriculture increasingly occurs in a context where private entrepreneurs coordinate extensive value chains linking producers to consumers, sometimes across multiple countries. These dynamics drive agricultural development and innovation far more than before across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More providers of knowledge are on the scene, particularly from the private sector and civil society, and they interact in new ways to generate ideas or develop responses to dynamics in agro-food value chains. A growing number of entrepreneurial smallholders are organizing to enter these value chains, but others struggle with the economic marginalization as innovative solutions do not reach them due to missing links in the value chains.
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Inclusion of Small- and Medium-Sized Producers in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains

imageThis paper uses the global value chain methodology to analyze Inter-American Development Bank Multilateral Investment Fund (IDB-MIF) initiatives in Latin America that aim to include high-value agriculture small producers in the national, regional and global chains. Based on extensive primary and secondary research, we propose a holistic model for these interventions.
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Assessment of Five High-Value Agriculture Inclusive Business Projects

imageThis paper is a summary of five IDB-MIF projects on high-value agriculture value chains that aimed to include small- and medium-sized producers in high-value agriculture value chains. The objective of this paper is to provide a set of lessons learned to design and implement efficient, effective and sustainable projects in the future.
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Basic Principles and Guidelines for Impactful and Sustainable Inclusive Business Interventions in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains

imageClient: Inter-American Development Bank-Multilateral Investment Fund (IDB-MIF)

Challenge: IDB-MIF wanted to capture the lessons from its experience in inclusive business and value chain development interventions in high-value agricultural markets. They sought to improve these interventions based on good practices and facilitate systematic institutionalization of this knowledge.

Approach & Outcome: Duke CGGC’s report summarized key lessons of IDB-MIF's projects in seven countries throughout Latin America. The team proposed a model to overcome constraints and provided a step-by-step guide to deploy it in high-value agriculture markets. The report was based on extensive primary and secondary research of IDB-MIF projects, interventions by development agencies and literature on SME inclusion in value chains. Over 50 interviews were conducted with country specialists, implementing agencies, industry experts, associations and producers.
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The Competitiveness of Small Organic Cocoa Producers of the National Confederation of Dominican Cocoa Producers (CONACADO)

imageSmall organic cocoa producers in the Dominican Republic improve their competitiveness by increasing cultivation productivity. This case study is also available in Spanish (Competitividad de Pequeños Productores de Cacao Orgánico de la Confederación Nacional de Cacaocultores Dominicanos).
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Case: Supporting the Competitiveness of Central American Coffee

imageAfter the coffee crisis at the turn of the century, a selected group of small and medium coffee producers in five Central American countries received technical assistance to produce higher value specialty coffee and help to establish market linkages with global buyers. This topic is explored in this case study for IDB-MIF. It is also available in Spanish (Apoyando la Competitividad del Café Centroamericano).
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Case: Development of Micro and Small Rural Apicultural Producers in Nicaragua & Honduras

imageMicro- and small honey producers were helped to enter into the domestic (Honduras) and global (Nicaragua) value chains.

Caso: Desarrollo de Micro y Pequeños Productores Apícolas en Nicaragua y Honduras

Micro y pequeños productores de miel fueron apoyados para insertarse en la cadena local de la miel (Honduras) y en la cadena global de la miel (Nicaragua).
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Case: Conversion to Organic Cacao Cultivation in Peru

imageSmall producers, members of a large, established coffee and cocoa cooperative in Tingo María, Perú, converted to certified organic production of cocoa.

Caso: Conversión hacia un Cultivo Orgánico de Cacao en Perú

Pequeños productores de cacao y café, miembros de la Cooperativa Industrial Naranjillo (COOPAIN), una cooperativa grande y consolidada en Tingo María, Perú, se han convertido en productores de café orgánico certificado.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of Organic Producers in Andean Microwatersheds

imageSmall fruit and vegetables producers in Huánuco, Peru were supported to form a consortium to sell their organic produce in supermarkets in Lima.

Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad de Productores Orgánicos en Microcuencas Andinas

Pequeños productores de frutas y verduras en Huánuco, Perú fueron apoyados para formar un consorcio con el fin de vender su producción orgánica en los supermercados de Lima.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of the Stevia Value Chain in Paraguay

imageSmall stevia producers in Paraguay were helped to improve the production and quality of stevia to raise incomes and expand the supply of stevia.

Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad en la Cadena de Valor de Stevia en Paraguay

Pequeños productores de stevia recibieron ayuda para mejorar la producción y calidad de la stevia en Paraguay con el fin de expandir la oferta del producto en mercados internacionales y aumentar sus ingresos.
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The Fruit and Vegetables Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development: Chapter 2

imageThis report shows the shift of fruit and vegetable preparation from rural households to the urban kitchen, and highlights the new skills and global standards required of workers and suppliers in developing countries to meet the needs of global supermarkets. Five countries are covered in this report: Honduras, Chile, Kenya, Morocco, and Jordan.
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Agricultural Value Chains in the Mexicali Valley of Mexico

imageThis study identifies the producers and buyers of the major crops grown in the Mexicali Valley – cotton, wheat, alfalfa, asparagus, and green onions. The report also reviews the public commitments made by these economic actors to sustainable environmental practices in their corporate sustainability reports.
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A Value Chain Analysis of Wild-Caught Shrimp in Sinaloa, Mexico

imageThis report illustrates the value chain of wild-caught shrimp landed in Sinaloa, Mexico and the environmental implications of fishing practices in the region. It highlights opportunities to link U.S. market interest for this product with development of environmentally sustainable fishing practices in the Gulf of California.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef & Dairy Industries

imageLivestock farms are a major source of greenhouse gases. Certain practices in feeding and manure management can reduce these and other environmental impacts, but how do you encourage 967,440 U.S. farms, ranches and feedlots to adopt these best practices? In this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), one finding is that the strongest leverage for impacting such change lies in the downstream players in the value chain.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Pork Industry

imageOver-use of antibiotics in hog production poses the risk of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, seriously threatening human health. Reducing antibiotic use, however, poses challenges to hog farmers. By analyzing the value chain, we can better understand the industry’s dynamics, preparing the way for further work to find ways of protecting public health that also make good business sense. This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops

imageCalifornia is the most diversified agricultural economy in the world, generating more agricultural value than many countries. In the value chains for two selected crops—grain corn and processed tomatoes—we identify the players positioned to encourage environmental best practices. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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