Research Reports

North America

Targeting Inclusive Development: A Value Chain Approach to Sewer Infrastructure Investment

April 2015   |   Durham, NC   |   Jack Daly, Lukas Brun, Andrew Guinn
This report by Duke CGGC was sponsored by the Surdna Foundation to investigate how six local governments within the United States (Cleveland, OH; Louisville, KY; Omaha, NE; Philadelphia, PA; San Francisco, CA; Seattle, WA) investing in water infrastructure have successfully incorporated targeted businesses in capital improvements, while also identifying which segments of the value chain have the highest levels of opportunity for these businesses.
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The Solar Economy: Widespread Benefits for North Carolina

February 2015   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Danny Hamrick, Jack Daly
This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) describes a solar “value chain” of investors, solar developers, construction contractors and solar panel and component manufacturers comprising more than 450 companies. Together, these companies support some 4,300 jobs and represent a $2 billion investment. In addition to jobs, solar industry-related businesses provide income for landowners and tax revenue for N.C. towns, the report states.
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Infrastructure Investment Creates American Jobs

October 2014   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Jason Jolley, Andrew Hull, Stacey Frederick
Duke CGGC researchers explored the current state of transportation infrastructure and the economic impact of additional investment in renewing infrastructure in the United States for the Alliance of America Manufacturing (AAM). They found that the U.S. ranks 16th overall in transportation infrastructure and that each dollar of investment returns 3.54 in economic activity, creating 21,671 jobs for each $1 billion invested in transportation infrastructure.
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Nicaragua and the Apparel Value Chain in the Americas

March 2014   |   Durham, NC   |   Stacey Frederick, Jennifer Bair, Gary Gereffi
This report explores how U.S. regional textile and apparel manufacturers are linked to the U.S. industry through textile exports and apparel imports and the the role of trade legislation in the past, present and future of the industry in Nicaragua and the United States.
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The Economic Impact of the High Point Market

October 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Bill Lester
Duke CGGC was engaged by the High Point Market Authority (HPMA) to conduct a comprehensive economic and fiscal impact of the High Point Market located in High Point, NC. The Market, conducted bi-annually, is the largest home furnishings market in the world and attracts over 75,000 visitors each market session who descend on High Point and its environs to buy, sell and market a wide variety of furniture, accessories, and design services. Beyond attracting a large number of visitors from outside the state, the Market serves a critical function for the broader furnishings industry and is a key node in the overall furniture industry’s value chain. In particular, it is widely known by local stakeholders that a large portion of the sales contacts and transactions for local manufacturing companies are initiated and negotiated at the Market.
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The Furniture Value Chain in North Carolina

October 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Giulio Buciuni, Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi
This research was sponsored by the High Point Market Authority (HPMA). The report provides an overview of the furniture industry in North Carolina.
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US Coal and the Technology Innovation Frontier: What role does coal play in our energy future?

March 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   Ghada Ahmed, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Gary Gereffi
The U.S. coal industry is coping with declining consumption as the nation burns less coal to generate electricity. The electric power sector drives coal demand and consumes over 90% of coal production. The coal industry is facing a number of challenges that include increasing production costs and competition from natural gas in the electric power market. The decreasing share of coal in power generation implies that the future of coal depends on technologies that change the way we manage and use coal such as carbon capture and utilization, coal gasification and coal liquefaction technologies.
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The NSPS Shipbuilding Value Chains

January 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun, Shawn Stokes, Andrew Guinn
The report analyzes the anatomy of the ships procured under Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy (NSPS), identifies opportunities for companies to participate in their construction and maintenance, and makes recommendations to government about supporting Nova Scotia companies, moving into higher value-added activities, and developing the regional value chain.
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Geosynthetics: Coastal Management Applications in the Gulf

July 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Shawn Stokes, Susan Wunderink, Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Coastal management projects to restore the Gulf Coast nearly all use geosynthetics-polymer-based materials that can improve structure performance, reduce project time and cost, and lessen environmental impact. This study by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) analyzes 84 firms linked to geosynthetics and coastal management, providing jobs in the five Gulf Coast states and 31 others.
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U.S. Bus Rapid Transit

July 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Monica La
As more U.S. cities consider adopting Bus Rapid Transit, CGGC researchers offer a new online tool to help decision-makers understand the value chain. A new report, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, with interactive database analyzes the value chain of 390 firms that provide vehicles, technology, and services for high-quality BRT. Links below are provided to the final report, the interactive database, and proceedings of a working meeting convened by CGGC on March 8, 2012 with support from The Rockefeller Foundation.
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Restoring Gulf Oyster Reefs: Opportunities for Innovation

June 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Shawn Stokes, Susan Wunderink, Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Several natural and man-made stressors are destroying Gulf Coast oyster reefs, jeopardizing a resource that protects the shore, filters water, and increases marine fisheries production. Restoring oyster reefs will maintain these valuable ecosystem services, and support a network of 132 innovative small and medium sized businesses across 22 states.
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Accessing Ocean Technology Value Chains: a Guide for the Canadian Trade Commissioner Service

April 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi
Increasing access of Canada's small and medium-sized enterprises to ocean technology value chains.
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Nova Scotia's Ocean Technologies

March 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun, Joonkoon Lee, Mary Turnipseed
This report focuses on increasing the competitiveness of the ocean technology sector in Nova Scotia.
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Restoring the Gulf Coast: New Markets for Established Firms

December 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Shawn Stokes, Gary Gereffi
Natural and human activities have damaged the Gulf Coast, threatening a valuable ecosystem vital to several billion-dollar industries such as seafood and tourism. Restoring the Gulf Coast can protect these assets while creating much-needed U.S. jobs, by engaging at least 140 firms across nearly 400 locations.
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Smart Grid: Core Firms in the Research Triangle Region, NC

May 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Hua Fan, Gary Gereffi
The Research Triangle is a smart grid hotspot, with specialized R&D centers, supportive government policies, and roughly 60 core firms whose capabilities stretch across the entire value chain. Research for this report was funded by NC State University’s Institute for Emerging Issues faculty fellows program, and prepared for the Research Triangle Regional Partnership.
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U.S. Smart Grid: Finding New Ways to Cut Carbon and Create Jobs

April 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Hua Fan, Gary Gereffi
Turning the electric power system into an "energy internet" can reduce CO2 emissions, stimulate technology innovation, expand the use of renewable energy, and create tens of thousands of U.S. jobs.
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The Multiple Pathways to Industrial Energy Efficiency: A Systems and Value Chain Approach

February 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Gary Gereffi
In most companies, significant opportunities exist to improve energy efficiency, and many of them pay for themselves. However, organizational and financial barriers often prevent companies from capturing these savings. Closing this “efficiency gap” can have a big payoff for companies and society as a whole. To understand these barriers and identify strategies to overcome them, the report examines why and how product manufacturers adopt energy-efficiency improvements in their internal operations and supply chains. This report was sponsored by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) Energy Program.
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Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles: The U.S. Value Chain

October 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Saori Tokuoka, Tali Trigg, Gary Gereffi
U.S. firms are racing against more established Asian firms to build a supply chain for the manufacture of batteries for electric vehicles. What's at stake is not just the batteries, but the U.S. position in the future auto industry.This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), found 119 sites spread out across 27 states, that are all playing key roles across the value chain.
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Case Study: Cree, Inc. Local Markets and Global Competitiveness: A Value Chain Analysis

October 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Ghada Ahmed, Marcy Lowe
Cree is adding jobs in the United States, but also in China--where the main attraction is not low-cost labor, but rather a large market for LED lighting products. This was a case study prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Agricultural Value Chains in the Mexicali Valley of Mexico

September 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Christpher Guertsen, Gary Gereffi
This study identifies the producers and buyers of the major crops grown in the Mexicali Valley – cotton, wheat, alfalfa, asparagus, and green onions. The report also reviews the public commitments made by these economic actors to sustainable environmental practices in their corporate sustainability reports.
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U.S. Manufacture of Rail Vehicles for Intercity Passenger Rail and Urban Transit: : A Value Chain Analysis

June 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Saori Tokuoka, Kristen Dubay, Gary Gereffi
This research was prepared by Duke CGGC on behalf of the Apollo Alliance with support from the Rockefeller Foundation and Surdna Foundation to help inform the Apollo Alliance's Transportation Manufacturing Action Plan by mapping out the U.S. value chain for manufacturing rail cars and parts for passenger trains. The report identifies a healthy domestic supply base of 249 U.S. manufacturing locations across 35 states, but also identifies gaps in domestic capabilities and areas in which U.S.-based firms should pursue higher-value activities such as design, engineering and systems integration.
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A Value Chain Analysis of Wild-Caught Shrimp in Sinaloa, Mexico

March 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Saori Tokuoka, Gary Gereffi
This report illustrates the value chain of wild-caught shrimp landed in Sinaloa, Mexico and the environmental implications of fishing practices in the region. It highlights opportunities to link U.S. market interest for this product with development of environmentally sustainable fishing practices in the Gulf of California.
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U.S. Adoption of High-Efficiency Motors and Drives: Lessons Learned

February 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Ruggero Golini, Gary Gereffi
Motor systems used by manufacturing industries play a large role in national energy profiles. In the United States, industrial motor systems account for about 17% of total electricity use. U.S. adoption of more efficient motors and motor systems could save an estimated 62-104 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually, at a cost savings of $3-5 billion. This research was prepared by Duke CGGC and sponsored by the Corporate Partnerships Program of the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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The Development and Diffusion of Powder Coatings in the United States and Europe

February 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Ruggero Golini, Gary Gereffi
Powder coatings eliminate VOCs released during industrial coating processes and offer additional environmental and economic benefits over petroleum-based coatings. The report traces the history of powder coatings in the United States and Europe, identifies the powder coating value chain structure, the ability of key players to affect the industry, and some challenges of the Chinese powder coating market. This research was sponsored by the Corporate Partnerships Program of the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Public Transit Buses: Chapter 12

October 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Bengu Aytekin, Gary Gereffi
Buses represent 25,000 to 33,000 domestic jobs, many overlapping with the heavy truck industry. U.S. firms are leading the development of hybrid, all-electric and other "green" buses--the future of the industry. This topic is covered in-depth in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Wind Power: Generating Electricity and Employment: Chapter 11

September 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Gloria Ayee, Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
U.S. employment in wind power is estimated at 85,000 jobs and growing quickly, with opportunities to employ workers and capacity from other industries like automotive and aerospace. Opportunities to expand wind power in the United States are explored in this report; the 11th chapter in a series on Manufacturing Climate Solutions written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Residential Re-Insulation: Chapter 10

August 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Gary Gereffi
With 46 million underinsulated homes in the United States, an expanding re-insulation market could save energy and create U.S. jobs for contractors, insulation installers, distributors, manufacturers, and material suppliers. This topic is explored in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.
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Hybrid Drivetrains for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks: Chapter 9

June 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gloria Ayee, Gary Gereffi
The United States is well positioned to take the lead in hybrid commercial trucks, a new, fast- growing market that promises future U.S. jobs in truck manufacturing, advanced energy storage, electronics, and software. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) as part of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.
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Carbon Capture and Storage: A Post-Combustion Capture Technology: Chapter 8

May 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Gary Gereffi
Chapter 8 of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) focuses on carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS). These technologies will allow the U.S. to continue using fossil fuel for power generation while also achieving national goals to reduce CO2 emissions. These billion dollar projects also present huge U.S.-based employment opportunities in fields ranging from R&D to manufacturing and construction.
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Recycling Industrial Waste Energy: Chapter 7

February 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Many industrial processes discard exhaust heat, combustible gases, and other "waste" energy. These highly recoverable resources can be harnessed to generate electricity, thus saving energy costs, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new jobs, and protecting existing jobs by increasing productivity and competitiveness. This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores this topic.
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Heat Pump Water Heaters: Chapter 6

February 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Gloria Ayee, Gary Gereffi
Current residential heat pump water heater products are add-on units used in conjunction with conventional storage tanks and they are produced by a handful of very small U.S. companies. The recent introduction of ENERGY STAR water heater criteria appears to be incentivizing some larger appliance manufacturers to develop new heat pump water heater products that will be more widely available. If consumer interest in heat pump water heaters increases, the market would need to scale up significantly to meet greater demands, opening greater opportunities for U.S. component manufacturing in the value chain. This topic is explored in-depth in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef & Dairy Industries

February 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Livestock farms are a major source of greenhouse gases. Certain practices in feeding and manure management can reduce these and other environmental impacts, but how do you encourage 967,440 U.S. farms, ranches and feedlots to adopt these best practices? In this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), one finding is that the strongest leverage for impacting such change lies in the downstream players in the value chain.
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Super Soil Systems: Chapter 5

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Marcy Lowe
Super Soil is not yet commercially available, but it is an example of a technology that could potentially be widely adopted. The adoption of this or similar technologies would involve manufacturing jobs producing large tanks. Additional manufacturing jobs would be needed to make the equipment, along with the associated requirements for steel, glass, concrete, and other materials, and construction jobs to build the facility. This new technology for treating hog waste could allow the United States to become a global market leader in a sector where, until now, no adequate alternative has been available. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Concentrating Solar Power: Clean Energy for the Electric Grid: Chapter 4

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
Concentrating solar power (CSP) represents a clean, powerful, endless, and reliable source of energy with the capacity to entirely satisfy the present and future electricity needs in the U.S. The new market for concentrating solar power plants has potential to create numerous U.S. manufacturing and construction jobs as U.S. companies grow and foreign firms come to the United States. This report was the fourth chapter in a series on Manufacturing Climate Solutions written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Auxiliary Power Units for Trucks: Chapter 3

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
Integration of auxiliary power units into long-haul truck manufacturing in the near future will likely increase penetration rates dramatically, with a corresponding boost to manufacturing. Expanded production of APUs would create economic opportunity at all stages of the value chain by increasing purchases from material and component suppliers. Additional value chain opportunities will likely come when APU technology is integrated as a component in tractor manufacturing rather than being an aftermarket product. The report was written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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High-Performance Windows: Chapter 2

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores high-performance window technologies. The U.S. industry faces new, more stringent efficiency criteria that may spur manufacturers to retool production lines and further innovate. Over the course of criteria changes, jobs may have to develop more efficient products. The ability of companies to respond to criteria changes may determine which companies will benefit and which will struggle to compete.
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LED Lighting: Chapter 1

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Marcy Lowe
This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for lighting applications. LEDs are a semiconductor technology whose application to general-purpose lighting is rapidly growing, with significant potential for energy savings. The market for general-purpose LED lighting is currently very small, but it is growing rapidly as the technology improves and costs go down. Leading U.S. manufacturers find it crucial to ensure high quality and to protect their innovations-two good reasons to keep the manufacturing close to home.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Pork Industry

October 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Over-use of antibiotics in hog production poses the risk of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, seriously threatening human health. Reducing antibiotic use, however, poses challenges to hog farmers. By analyzing the value chain, we can better understand the industry’s dynamics, preparing the way for further work to find ways of protecting public health that also make good business sense. This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops

July 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
California is the most diversified agricultural economy in the world, generating more agricultural value than many countries. In the value chains for two selected crops—grain corn and processed tomatoes—we identify the players positioned to encourage environmental best practices. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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An Analysis of the U.S. Real Estate Value Chain with Environmental Metrics

April 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Recognizing that buildings account for 40% of U.S. energy consumption, EDF asked CGGC to analyze the U.S. real estate industry and find key firms that are well-positioned to innovative business practices to reduce building energy use. Among the report's key findings: (1) In the finance segment, there is greater leverage on the equity than the debt side. In other words, when it comes to working with building owners and developers, investors have greater influence than lenders. (2) The greatest energy-savings potential lies in companies that own and operate real estate, and firms that either invest in them or manage property for them. The report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). In the video, Marcy Lowe, discusses CGGC value chain analysis research on the U.S. real estate industry.
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