Research Reports

Global Value Chains & Development

OECD Background Paper: Capturing the Gains in Africa, Making the Most of Global Value Chain Participation

February 2014   |   Goger, Annelies, Andrew Hull, Stephanie Barrientos, Gary Gereffi and Shane Godfrey
This report was commissioned as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Africa Economic Outlook (AEO)” 2014. It provides a critical overview of the Capturing the Gains (CTG) research findings from Africa across three industries: horticulture, apparel and tourism. Specific emphasis is placed on identifying opportunities and challenges for economic and social upgrading within African GVCs so that workers and small producers can capture a fairer share of the gains from trade and economic growth. The report also offers sector specific GVC policy recommendations for African policy makers.
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Connecting Local Producers in Developing Countries to Regional and Global Value Chains

December 3, 2013   |   Bamber, Penny, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Gary Gereffi, and Andrew Guinn
This report, commissioned by the Trade and Agriculture Directorate of the OECD, analyzes the specific factors that affect the competitiveness of developing countries in regional and global value chains (GVCs), and how these factors differ across four major economic sectors: agriculture, extractive industries, manufacturing and offshore services. The analysis highlights that in order to participate gainfully in GVCs, developing countries must adopt industry-specific policy frameworks that reflect the changing reality of global business.
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Costa Rica in Global Value Chains: An Upgrading Analysis

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Gary Gereffi, Penny Bamber, Stacey Frederick, Karina Fernandez-Stark
This introductory chapter outlines the analytical framework employed for the study, examines Costa Rica's rapid shift from agricultural exports to high tech exports and provides an introduction to relevant elements of Costa Rica's investment, trade and education policies.
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Brazilian Manufacturing in International Perspective: A Global Value Chain Analysis of Brazil's Aerospace, Medical Devices, and Electronics Industries

September, 2013   |   Brazil
   |   Gary Gereffi, Andrew Guinn, Ezequiel Zylberberg
Duke CGGC and MIT's Industrial Performance Center conducted a year-long study of the Brazil's position in the aerospace, medical devices and electronics global value chains. This report, sponsored by the Confederação Nacional da Indústria in Brazil, presents key findings from the research and provides recommendations to improve Brazilian industrial policy.
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Costa Rica in Global Value Chains: An Upgrading Analysis

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Gary Gereffi, Penny Bamber, Stacey Frederick, Karina Fernandez-Stark
This introductory chapter outlines the analytical framework employed for the study, examines Costa Rica's rapid shift from agricultural exports to high tech exports and provides an introduction to relevant elements of Costa Rica's investment, trade and education policies.
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Costa Rica in the Medical Devices Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC Researchers: Stacey Frederick
Covering a broad spectrum of products from inexpensive bandages, to technology-intensive hearing aids and tissue heart valves, to high-cost items such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, the medical devices sector offers high growth potential. The report uses the GVC framework to analyze Costa Rica´s position and potential for upgrading in this industry.
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Costa Rica in the Electronics Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi
The electronics industry encompasses a vast array of products that feed into markets ranging from consumer products to high-end medical equipment. This report uses the GVC framework to illustrate opportunities for Costa Rica's established electronic component sector to capitalize on other complementary growth markets in the country including medical devices, automotive and aerospace.
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Costa Rica in the Aerospace Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Entry & Upgrading

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC Researchers: Stacey Frederick and Andrew Guinn
The global aerospace sector is a challenging industry to enter, yet several developing countries have been able to make significant in-roads. This report uses the global value chain (GVC) framework to understand the complexity of the industry and the numerous subsystems of which it is composed in order to provide insight on entry strategies.
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Costa Rica in the Offshore Services Global Value Chain: Opportunities for Upgrading

August 8, 2013   |   Costa Rica
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
Costa Rica has been successful in attracting some of the top companies in the offshore services industry to establish operations within the country, particularly in BPO operations and other shared services. This study uses the GVC framework to analyze the country's potential for further upgrading and consolidating its position in the industry.
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US Coal and the Technology Innovation Frontier: What role does coal play in our energy future?

February 8, 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   Ghada Ahmed, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Gary Gereffi
The U.S. coal industry is coping with declining consumption as the nation burns less coal to generate electricity. The electric power sector drives coal demand and consumes over 90% of coal production. The coal industry is facing a number of challenges that include increasing production costs and competition from natural gas in the electric power market. The decreasing share of coal in power generation implies that the future of coal depends on technologies that change the way we manage and use coal such as carbon capture and utilization, coal gasification and coal liquefaction technologies.
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Global Value Chains, Economic Upgrading and Gender

January 31, 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   Ghada Ahmed, Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark and Michelle Christian, edited by Cornelia Staritz and José Guilherme Reis
Case Studies of the Horticulture, Tourism, and Call Center Industries

This book provides a gendered analysis of the horticulture, tourism, and call center global value chains (GVCs) based on a survey of the literature and case studies carried out in Honduras, Kenya, and the Arab Republic of Egypt.
The studies show that GVCs and their upgrading dynamics have important gender dimensions, and that integration and upgrading are influenced by, and have an impact on, gender relations.
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The NSPS Shipbuilding Value Chains

January 24, 2013   |   Durham, NC   |   USA
   |   Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun, Shawn Stokes, Andrew Guinn
The report analyzes the anatomy of the ships procured under Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy (NSPS), identifies opportunities for companies to participate in their construction and maintenance, and makes recommendations to government about supporting Nova Scotia companies, moving into higher value-added activities, and developing the regional value chain.
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Inclusion of Small- and Medium-Sized Producers in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains

December 20, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Latin America, USA
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
This paper uses the global value chain methodology to analyze Inter-American Development Bank Multilateral Investment Fund (IDB-MIF) initiatives in Latin America that aim to include high-value agriculture small producers in the national, regional and global chains. Based on extensive primary and secondary research, we propose a holistic model for these interventions.
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Assessment of Five High-Value Agriculture Inclusive Business Projects Sponsored by the Inter- American Development Bank in Latin America

December 20, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Latin America, USA
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
This paper is a summary of five IDB-MIF projects that aimed to include small- and medium-sized producers in high-value agriculture value chains. The objective of this paper is to provide a set of lessons learned to design and implement efficient, effective and sustainable projects in the future.
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Basic Principles and Guidelines for Impactful and Sustainable Inclusive Business Interventions in High-Value Agro-Food Value Chains

December 20, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Latin America, USA
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
The objective of this report is to inform IDB-MIF officers and management how global value chain interventions can be more effectively designed, monitored and evaluated to ensure sustainable inclusion of small- and medium-sized producers in high-value agricultural chains.
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OECD Background Paper: Upgrading in Global Value Chains: Addressing the Skills Challenge in Developing Countries

September 26, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
This report was commissioned by OECD as a background paper for the annual OECD publication, “Perspectives of Development” 2013. This report examines the role of workforce development using the GVC methodology in four industries: apparel, fruit and vegetables, offshore services and tourism in 19 developing countries. The report presents a typology for policy recommendations to enhance the capabilities of the labor force to support GVC upgrading.
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Case: Supporting the Competitiveness of Central American Coffee

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Central America
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
After the coffee crisis at the turn of the century, a selected group of small and medium coffee producers in five Central American countries received technical assistance to produce higher value specialty coffee and help to establish market linkages with global buyers.

Caso: Apoyando la Competitividad del Café Centroamericano

Después de la crisis del café ocurrida a principios de siglo, un grupo selecto de pequeños y medianos productores de café de 5 países de Centroamérica recibió asistencia técnica para producir café de especialidad y contactos con compradores globales.
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Case: Development of Micro and Small Rural Apicultural Producers in Nicaragua & Honduras

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Nicaragua, Honduras
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
Micro- and small honey producers were helped to enter into the domestic (Honduras) and global (Nicaragua) value chains.

Caso: Desarrollo de Micro y Pequeños Productores Apícolas en Nicaragua y Honduras

Micro y pequeños productores de miel fueron apoyados para insertarse en la cadena local de la miel (Honduras) y en la cadena global de la miel (Nicaragua).
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Case: Conversion to Organic Cacao Cultivation in Peru

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Tingo María, Perú,
   |   Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark
Small producers, members of a large, established coffee and cocoa cooperative in Tingo María, Perú, converted to certified organic production of cocoa.

Caso: Conversión hacia un Cultivo Orgánico de Cacao en Perú

Pequeños productores de cacao y café, miembros de la Cooperativa Industrial Naranjillo (COOPAIN), una cooperativa grande y consolidada en Tingo María, Perú, se han convertido en productores de café orgánico certificado.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of Organic Producers in Andean Microwatersheds

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Huánuco, Peru
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber
Small fruit and vegetables producers in Huánuco, Peru were supported to form a consortium to sell their organic produce in supermarkets in Lima.

Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad de Productores Orgánicos en Microcuencas Andinas

Pequeños productores de frutas y verduras en Huánuco, Perú fueron apoyados para formar un consorcio con el fin de vender su producción orgánica en los supermercados de Lima.
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Case: Strengthening the Competitiveness of the Stevia Value Chain in Paraguay

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Paraguay
   |   Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark
Small stevia producers in Paraguay were helped to improve the production and quality of stevia to raise incomes and expand the supply of stevia.

Caso: Fortaleciendo la Competitividad en la Cadena de Valor de Stevia en Paraguay

Pequeños productores de stevia recibieron ayuda para mejorar la producción y calidad de la stevia en Paraguay con el fin de expandir la oferta del producto en mercados internacionales y aumentar sus ingresos.
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Case: The Competitiveness of Small Organic Cocoa Producers of the National Confederation of Dominican Cocoa Producers

July 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   USA, Dominican Republic
   |   Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark
Small organic cocoa producers in the Dominican Republic improve their competitiveness by increasing cultivation productivity.

Caso: Competitividad de Pequeños Productores de Cacao Orgánico de la Confederación Nacional de Cacaocultores Dominicanos (Conacado)

Pequeños productores de cacao orgánico en República Dominicana mejoraron su competitividad mediante el incremento de la productividad de las plantaciones.
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Geosynthetics: Coastal Management Applications in the Gulf

July 21, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Shawn Stokes, Susan Wunderink, Marcy Lowe, and Gary Gereffi
Coastal management projects to restore the Gulf Coast nearly all use geosynthetics-polymer-based materials that can improve structure performance, reduce project time and cost, and lessen environmental impact. This study analyzes 84 firms linked to geosynthetics and coastal management, providing jobs in the five Gulf Coast states and 31 others.
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Restoring Gulf Oyster Reefs: Opportunities for Innovation

June 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Shawn Stokes, Susan Wunderink, Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Several natural and manmade stressors are destroying Gulf Coast oyster reefs, jeopardizing a resource that protects the shore, filters water, and increases marine fisheries production. Restoring oyster reefs will maintain these valuable ecosystem services, and support a network of 132 innovative small and medium sized businesses across 22 states.
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Accessing Ocean Technology Value Chains: a Guide for the Canadian Trade Commissioner Service

April 12, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi
Increasing access of Canada's small and medium-sized enterprises to ocean technology value chains.
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Nova Scotia's Ocean Technologies

March 5, 2012   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Lukas Brun, Joonkoon Lee, and Mary Turnipseed
Increasing the competitiveness of the ocean technology sector in Nova Scotia.
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Manual: Desarrollo Económico Local y Cadenas Globales de Valor

December, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   USA
   |   Karina Fernández-Stark, Gary Gereffi
Este manual tiene por objeto informar a los equipos de investigación del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo en América Latina acerca de una metodología que permite analizar casos de Desarrollo Económico Local (DEL). En este instructivo se ha incluido el marco tradicional de los estudios DEL y, además, se ha incorporado la metodología de las cadenas globales de valor con el fin de analizar cómo los sectores productivos están colaborando en el desarrollo económico local y, a la vez, cómo los micro, pequeños y medianos empresarios están incluidos en la cadena.
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Restoring the Gulf Coast: New Markets for Established Firms

December 5, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Shawn Stokes, Gary Gereffi
Natural and human activities have damaged the Gulf Coast, threatening a valuable ecosystem vital to several billion-dollar industries such as seafood and tourism. Restoring the Gulf Coast can protect these assets while creating much-needed U.S. jobs, by engaging at least 140 firms across nearly 400 locations.
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Skills for Upgrading: Workforce Development and Global Value Chains in Developing Countries

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Phil Psilos
This research project examines workforce development strategies in developing countries in the context of the shifting upgrading dynamics of global value chains. Funded by RTI International and carried out by Duke CGGC researchers in collaboration with RTI, this research addresses policymakers, donors and development practitioners to improve our understanding of how workforce development strategies can enhance the upgrading efforts and competitiveness of developing countries in global industries.
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Workforce Development in the Global Economy: Linking Skills and Capabilities

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Phil Psilos, Gary Gereffi
Value chain practice has become widely utilized in enterprise and industry development in recent years, yet there is almost no literature on workforce development in the context of what we now know about the dynamic upgrading trajectories of countries in global value chains. This introductory chapter highlights the importance of adopting a complementary GVC approach to workforce development to improve the participation and competitiveness of developing countries in the global economy.
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The Fruit and Vegetables Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC Researchers: Ghada Ahmed, Shelli Jo Heil, RTI Researcher Christopher Root
Shows the shift of fruit and vegetable preparation from rural households to the urban kitchen, and highlights the new skills and global standards required of workers and suppliers in developing countries to meet the needs of global supermarkets.
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The Apparel Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Stacey Frederick, Gary Gereffi, Contributing CGGC Researchers: Penny Bamber, Ghada Ahmed
Export-processing zones in low-cost countries have become synonymous with globalization, but what is the next step for developing countries in apparel? Outlines the skills required to turn assembly lines into one-stop production centers that include design, logistics and brands.
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The Offshore Services Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
Developing countries around the world are competing to become the next Bangalore, but they need to take various steps to ensure their human capital can meet the exacting demands and professional certifications required by developed world clients.
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The Tourism Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Michelle Christian, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Ghada Ahmed, Gary Gereffi
Global tourists are traveling further, faster and more frequently than ever before. This report indicates how developing countries can prepare their tourism workforce to provide the high levels of customer service expected by today’s sophisticated traveler.
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Meeting the Upgrading Challenge: Dynamic Workforces for Diversified Economies

November 15, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi, Phil Psilos, Joe DeStefano
This final chapter summarizes the key findings of the "Skills for Upgrading" research project in four thematic areas: upgrading, workforce skills, institutions and stakeholders, and global standards. We also offer a list of recommendations regarding workforce development strategies for donors and development practitioners to best prepare the workforce in developing countries to respond to the growing demands of global industries.
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Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer

May 31, 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-Stark
The global economy is increasingly structured around global value chains (GVCs) that account for a rising share of international trade, global GDP and employment. The evolution of GVCs in sectors as diverse as commodities, apparel, electronics, tourism and business service outsourcing has significant implications in terms of global trade, production and employment and how developing country firms, producers and workers are integrated in the global economy. GVCs link firms, workers and consumers around the world and often provide a stepping stone for firms and workers in developing countries to integrate into the global economy.
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Global value chains and agrifood standards: Challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries

2010-10-12   |   Durham   |   Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee, Janet Beauvais
The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains.
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Agricultural Value Chains in the Mexicali Valley of Mexico

September 15, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun
This study identifies the producers and buyers of the major crops grown in the Mexicali Valley – cotton, wheat, alfalfa, asparagus, and green onions. The report also reviews the public commitments made by these economic actors to sustainable environmental practices in their corporate sustainability reports.
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The Marketing and Distribution of Fast Food

September 3, 2010   |   Durham, NC
This chapter seeks to advance the multilevel approach to studying childhood obesity by focusing on the "macro" level of corporations in the global economy. We use a global value chains (GVC) framework to explain how the structure of food and agricultural value chains, with an emphasis on the fast-food segment, affects individual consumption choices.
Chapter

Trade, Transnational Corporations and Food Consumption: A GVC Approach

April 19, 2010   |   Durham, NC
This paper explores the connections between the spread of obesity, especially in developing countries, and the interrelated expansion of trade, foreign direct investment, and transnational corporations (TNCs). The authors outline how the main concepts and methods of global value chains analysis can be applied to identify the direct and indirect linkages between the global economic processes of trade, foreign and direct investment, and food consumption.
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Engineering Services in the Americas

July 1, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
Despite the 2008-2009 economic crisis, countries across Latin America continue to grow rapidly, driven by commodity booms and the growth of mining, petroleum and forestry sectors. Combined with the need for massive scale infrastructure development across these developing countries, the demand for engineering services in the Americas is booming. This report examines how this demand may be met regionally by analyzing the supply and quality and cost of engineers in five key countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and the United States.
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The Offshore Services Value Chain: Developing Countries and the Crisis

April 2010
This paper analyzes the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the offshore services industry. This paper was commissioned by the World Bank.
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The Offshore Services Industry: A New Opportunity for Latin America

April 2010   |   Gary Gereffi, Mario Castillo, Karina Fernandez-Stark
The Center prepared a Policy Brief for the Inter-American Development Bank in which the offshore services industry is presented as a new opportunity for Latin America. The Center was invited to present the main findings of the Policy Brief in the annual REDIBERO meeting, with the title, "La Promoción del Comercio y la Inversión en Iberoamérica ¿Podemos avanzar hacia la promoción regional?"
IADB Policy Brief  Presentation (in Spanish)

Workforce Development in Chile's Offshore Services Value Chain

March 15, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   CGGC, Duke University
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
This report is based on interviews with CEOs, Country Managers, HR executives and employees of 15 key companies in the offshore services sector in Chile. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
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The Offshore Services Global Value Chain

March 1, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   CGGC, Duke University
   |   Gary Gereffi, Karina Fernandez-Stark
This report analyzes the evolving offshore services industry employing the Global Value Chain framework. Offshore services emerged as a dynamic global sector in the past two decades. Companies in their search for efficiencies and economies of scale began offshoring and outsourcing a variety of corporate functions. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
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Chile's Offshore Services Value Chain

March 1, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   CGGC, Duke University
   |   Karina Fernandez-Stark, Penny Bamber, Gary Gereffi
This report presents the Chilean offshore services industry value chain. The authors provide in- depth analysis of the ITO, BPO and KPO segments, including both the current level of development and challenges for future growth. This report was commissioned by the Chilean Agency for Economic Development (CORFO).
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A Value Chain Analysis of Wild-Caught Shrimp in Sinaloa, Mexico

March 15, 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Saori Tokuoka, Gary Gereffi
This report illustrates the value chain of wild-caught shrimp landed in Sinaloa, Mexico and the environmental implications of fishing practices in the region. It highlights opportunities to link U.S. market interest for this product with development of environmentally sustainable fishing practices in the Gulf of California.
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U.S.-Based Food and Agriculture Value Chains and their Relevance to Healthy Diets

Dec 12, 2009   |   Durham, NC
This paper outlines the global value chains (GVCs) of the chicken and tomato industries, showing how these industries have changed over time, who is driving that change, and how different segments of the value chain affect healthy diets and impact low-income populations. The authors specifically address how the lead firms in the global value chains of the chicken and tomato industries are a part of the processed food revolution and how this potentially impacts low-income communities.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef & Dairy Industries

February 16, 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Livestock farms are a major source of greenhouse gases. Certain practices in feeding and manure management can reduce these and other environmental impacts, but how do you encourage 967,440 U.S. farms, ranches and feedlots to adopt these best practices? We find that the strongest leverage for effecting such change lies in the downstream players in the value chain.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Pork Industry

October 3, 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Over-use of antibiotics in hog production poses the risk of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, seriously threatening human health. Reducing antibiotic use, however, poses challenges to hog farmers. By analyzing the value chain, we can better understand the industry’s dynamics, preparing the way for further work to find ways of protecting public health that also make good business sense.
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A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops

July 4, 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe
California is the most diversified agricultural economy in the world, generating more agricultural value than many countries. In the value chains for two selected crops—grain corn and processed tomatoes—we identify the players positioned to encourage environmental best practices.
EDF California Crops Report  EDF Report: Appendix A and B

A Global Value Chains Approach to Food, Healthy Diets, and Childhood Obesity

November 5, 2007   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Michelle Christian
A challenge associated with the nutrition transition in developing countries (i.e.,simultaneous presence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition, both being most prevalent in the poorest population segments) is the integration of their markets into the global economy. This integration determined rapid and strong changes in the production and trade of agricultural goods in the developing countries as well as growing foreign direct investments in food processing and retailing, and the expansion of food advertisements with obvious implications for dietary patterns and the risk of obesity.
Paper