Research Reports

Environmental Impact

The Multiple Pathways to Industrial Energy Efficiency: A Systems and Value Chain Approach

February 2011   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Gary Gereffi
In most companies, significant opportunities exist to improve energy efficiency, and many of them pay for themselves. However, organizational and financial barriers often prevent companies from capturing these savings. Closing this “efficiency gap” can have a big payoff for companies and society as a whole. To understand these barriers and identify strategies to overcome them, the report examines why and how product manufacturers adopt energy-efficiency improvements in their internal operations and supply chains. This report was sponsored by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) Energy Program.
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Case Study: Cree, Inc. Local Markets and Global Competitiveness: A Value Chain Analysis

October 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Ghada Ahmed, Marcy Lowe
Cree is adding jobs in the United States, but also in China--where the main attraction is not low-cost labor, but rather a large market for LED lighting products. This was a case study prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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The Development and Diffusion of Powder Coatings in the United States and Europe

February 2010   |   Durham, NC   |   Lukas Brun, Ruggero Golini, Gary Gereffi
Powder coatings eliminate VOCs released during industrial coating processes and offer additional environmental and economic benefits over petroleum-based coatings. The report traces the history of powder coatings in the United States and Europe, identifies the powder coating value chain structure, the ability of key players to affect the industry, and some challenges of the Chinese powder coating market. This research was sponsored by the Corporate Partnerships Program of the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Public Transit Buses: Chapter 12

October 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Bengu Aytekin, Gary Gereffi
Buses represent 25,000 to 33,000 domestic jobs, many overlapping with the heavy truck industry. U.S. firms are leading the development of hybrid, all-electric and other "green" buses--the future of the industry. This topic is covered in-depth in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Wind Power: Generating Electricity and Employment: Chapter 11

September 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Gloria Ayee, Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
U.S. employment in wind power is estimated at 85,000 jobs and growing quickly, with opportunities to employ workers and capacity from other industries like automotive and aerospace. Opportunities to expand wind power in the United States are explored in this report; the 11th chapter in a series on Manufacturing Climate Solutions written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Residential Re-Insulation: Chapter 10

August 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Gary Gereffi
With 46 million underinsulated homes in the United States, an expanding re-insulation market could save energy and create U.S. jobs for contractors, insulation installers, distributors, manufacturers, and material suppliers. This topic is explored in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.
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Hybrid Drivetrains for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Trucks: Chapter 9

June 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gloria Ayee, Gary Gereffi
The United States is well positioned to take the lead in hybrid commercial trucks, a new, fast- growing market that promises future U.S. jobs in truck manufacturing, advanced energy storage, electronics, and software. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) as part of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions series.
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Carbon Capture and Storage: A Post-Combustion Capture Technology: Chapter 8

May 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Gary Gereffi
Chapter 8 of the Manufacturing Climate Solutions prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) focuses on carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS). These technologies will allow the U.S. to continue using fossil fuel for power generation while also achieving national goals to reduce CO2 emissions. These billion dollar projects also present huge U.S.-based employment opportunities in fields ranging from R&D to manufacturing and construction.
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Recycling Industrial Waste Energy: Chapter 7

February 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Many industrial processes discard exhaust heat, combustible gases, and other "waste" energy. These highly recoverable resources can be harnessed to generate electricity, thus saving energy costs, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new jobs, and protecting existing jobs by increasing productivity and competitiveness. This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores this topic.
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Heat Pump Water Heaters: Chapter 6

February 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Kristen Dubay, Gloria Ayee, Gary Gereffi
Current residential heat pump water heater products are add-on units used in conjunction with conventional storage tanks and they are produced by a handful of very small U.S. companies. The recent introduction of ENERGY STAR water heater criteria appears to be incentivizing some larger appliance manufacturers to develop new heat pump water heater products that will be more widely available. If consumer interest in heat pump water heaters increases, the market would need to scale up significantly to meet greater demands, opening greater opportunities for U.S. component manufacturing in the value chain. This topic is explored in-depth in this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Beef & Dairy Industries

February 2009   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Livestock farms are a major source of greenhouse gases. Certain practices in feeding and manure management can reduce these and other environmental impacts, but how do you encourage 967,440 U.S. farms, ranches and feedlots to adopt these best practices? In this report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), one finding is that the strongest leverage for impacting such change lies in the downstream players in the value chain.
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Super Soil Systems: Chapter 5

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Marcy Lowe
Super Soil is not yet commercially available, but it is an example of a technology that could potentially be widely adopted. The adoption of this or similar technologies would involve manufacturing jobs producing large tanks. Additional manufacturing jobs would be needed to make the equipment, along with the associated requirements for steel, glass, concrete, and other materials, and construction jobs to build the facility. This new technology for treating hog waste could allow the United States to become a global market leader in a sector where, until now, no adequate alternative has been available. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Concentrating Solar Power: Clean Energy for the Electric Grid: Chapter 4

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
Concentrating solar power (CSP) represents a clean, powerful, endless, and reliable source of energy with the capacity to entirely satisfy the present and future electricity needs in the U.S. The new market for concentrating solar power plants has potential to create numerous U.S. manufacturing and construction jobs as U.S. companies grow and foreign firms come to the United States. This report was the fourth chapter in a series on Manufacturing Climate Solutions written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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Auxiliary Power Units for Trucks: Chapter 3

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
Integration of auxiliary power units into long-haul truck manufacturing in the near future will likely increase penetration rates dramatically, with a corresponding boost to manufacturing. Expanded production of APUs would create economic opportunity at all stages of the value chain by increasing purchases from material and component suppliers. Additional value chain opportunities will likely come when APU technology is integrated as a component in tractor manufacturing rather than being an aftermarket product. The report was written by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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High-Performance Windows: Chapter 2

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Kristen Dubay
This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores high-performance window technologies. The U.S. industry faces new, more stringent efficiency criteria that may spur manufacturers to retool production lines and further innovate. Over the course of criteria changes, jobs may have to develop more efficient products. The ability of companies to respond to criteria changes may determine which companies will benefit and which will struggle to compete.
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LED Lighting: Chapter 1

November 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Gary Gereffi, Marcy Lowe
This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) explores light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for lighting applications. LEDs are a semiconductor technology whose application to general-purpose lighting is rapidly growing, with significant potential for energy savings. The market for general-purpose LED lighting is currently very small, but it is growing rapidly as the technology improves and costs go down. Leading U.S. manufacturers find it crucial to ensure high quality and to protect their innovations-two good reasons to keep the manufacturing close to home.
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A Value Chain Analysis of the U.S. Pork Industry

October 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Over-use of antibiotics in hog production poses the risk of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, seriously threatening human health. Reducing antibiotic use, however, poses challenges to hog farmers. By analyzing the value chain, we can better understand the industry’s dynamics, preparing the way for further work to find ways of protecting public health that also make good business sense. This report by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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A Value Chain Analysis of Selected California Crops

July 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
California is the most diversified agricultural economy in the world, generating more agricultural value than many countries. In the value chains for two selected crops—grain corn and processed tomatoes—we identify the players positioned to encourage environmental best practices. This report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF).
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An Analysis of the U.S. Real Estate Value Chain with Environmental Metrics

April 2008   |   Durham, NC   |   Marcy Lowe, Gary Gereffi
Recognizing that buildings account for 40% of U.S. energy consumption, EDF asked CGGC to analyze the U.S. real estate industry and find key firms that are well-positioned to innovative business practices to reduce building energy use. Among the report's key findings: (1) In the finance segment, there is greater leverage on the equity than the debt side. In other words, when it comes to working with building owners and developers, investors have greater influence than lenders. (2) The greatest energy-savings potential lies in companies that own and operate real estate, and firms that either invest in them or manage property for them. The report was prepared by Duke CGGC for the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). In the video, Marcy Lowe, discusses CGGC value chain analysis research on the U.S. real estate industry.
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