Food & Agriculture

Connecting to the World Market through Regional Value Chains: Partnership Opportunities in Coconut Value Chain for the Small Caribbean Economies

2016   |    Ajmal Abdulsamad

This report presents the advantages of a regional approach and the opportunities of public-private collaboration in connecting the small Caribbean economies to the global market. Findings from this research will inform the strategy of a multi-year program, “Coconut Industry Development for the Caribbean,” funded by the European Union and jointly implemented by the International Trade Center (ITC) and the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI). The report covers nine Caribbean countries: the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Guyana, Belize, Suriname, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Dominica.

Report prepared for the International Trade Center (ITC)   View Report PDF

Syria Wheat Value Chain and Food Security

2016   |    Ghada Ahmed

This research brief discusses the wheat value chain in Syria and points of disruptions in the chain leading to acute food insecurity in the nation.

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 8, March  View PDF   View MINERVA Website

Moroccan Food Security and the Wheat Value Chain

2016   |    Gabriel Arrisueño, Ghada Ahmed, Danny Hamrick, Sona Nahapetyan

Morocco\'s high dependence on food imports exposes it to international price volatility which puts its food security at risk. This brief examines food security challenges in Morocco, policy responses, the wheat value chain, and the potential for disruptions in the chain, and suggests several policy action areas to address these challenges.

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 7, January  View PDF   View MINERVA Website

Review of Ecuador’s Agri-Industries Global Value Chains: Bottlenecks and Roadmap for Implementation

2015   |    Ghada Ahmed, Danny Hamrick

This report was prepared as a background paper to the World Bank Ecuador Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) which was released on March 6th, 2016. The Ecuador Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) is the result of a team effort of the Ecuador Country Team, members from several Global Practices and the IFC.

Background Study for Ecuador’s Country Economic Memorandum   View Report

Comparing Russia’s and Ukraine’s Wheat GVC

2015   |    Ghada Ahmed, Danny Hamrick, Drew Haerer, Gary Gereffi, Lincoln Pratson

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 6, May  View PDF

Role of Private Firms in the Egyptian Maize Value Chain

2015   |    Marie Veyrier, Ghada Ahmed, Danny Hamrick

Maize impacts both caloric intake and diet quality of the Egyptian population. Such importance is mostly driven by a shift in diets. The private sector, which relies on imports to cater to its maize needs, is the lead actor of the maize value chain. This brief first analyzes the importance of maize to Egypt’s food security. In a global context where maize prices are high and volatile, this brief describes the strategies adopted by Egyptian lead firms to secure supply and meet growing demand. Such strategies range from diversification to vertical integration and upgrading.

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 5, May  View PDF

Hubs and Communities: A Structural Analysis of MENA’s Wheat Network

2014   |    Jonathan Morgan, Jack Daly, Ghada Ahmed, Danny Hamrick, Andrew Guinn, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Annelies Goger, Gary Gereffi, Lincoln Pratson

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 4, September  View PDF

Changing Food Systems and Inequality: Implications for Food Security and Public Policy

2014   |    Andrew Guinn, Danny Hamrick

The report looks at food systems, public policy, and inequality in four BRICSAM countries: Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa.

Report prepared for the European Union and Oxfam   View Report

Inclusive Value Chain Interventions in the High-Value Agrifood Sector in Latin America

2014   |    Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark

Global Value Chains and World Trade: Prospects and Challenges for Latin America Chapter 4, p. 137-162 in R. Hernández, J. Mario Martínez-Piva and N. Mulder (eds.), Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).  View Book PDF

Shifting Sources of Wheat Supply for MENA Countries: the Rise of the Black Sea

2014   |    Annelies Goger, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Danny Hamrick, Ghada Ahmed, Andrew Guinn, Jack Daly, Jonathan Morgan, Gary Gereffi

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 3, May  View Research Brief

Comparing Egypt and Saudi Arabia’s Wheat GVC

2014   |    Danny Hamrick, Ghada Ahmed, Andrew Guinn, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Annelies Goger, Jack Daly, Jonathan Morgan, Gary Gereffi

Wheat is one of the most important commodities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the region is the largest importer of wheat and other grains. While there are many challenges in terms of securing stable wheat supplies, like storage capacity and water reserves, sub-regional differences exist in the organization of the wheat industry and subsequent challenges. This brief sheds light on these differences through a comparison of Egyptian and Saudi Arabian wheat value chains. We conclude that while many issues, such as availability of currency reserves, span the region, other issues are country or sub-region specific.

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 2, April  View Research Brief

Global Value Chain Analysis and Food Security

2014   |    Andrew Guinn, Danny Hamrick, Ghada Ahmed, Ajmal Abdulsamad, Annelies Goger, Jack Daly, Jonathan Morgan, Gary Gereffi

This brief compares the GVC approach to understanding food security with more traditional approaches and identifies how GVC analysis allows researchers to identify and investigate important food security challenges facing MENA, particularly the issues of governance and international trade.

Duke MINERVA Research Brief No. 1, April  View Research Brief

Global Value Chains, Economic Upgrading and Gender: Case Studies of the Horticulture, Tourism, and Call Center Industries

2013   |    Penny Bamber, Karina Fernandez-Stark, Ghada Ahmed, Michelle Christian

This book provides an analysis of the horticulture, tourism, and call center global value chains (GVCs) based on a survey of the literature and case studies carried out in Honduras (horticulture), Kenya (tourism), and Egypt (call centers). The studies show that GVCs and their upgrading dynamics have important gender dimensions, and that integration and upgrading are influenced by, and have an impact on, gender relations.

World Bank Book Cornelia Staritz and José Guilherme Reis (eds.)  View Book   View Blog Post

Global Value Chains and Agrifoods Standards: Challenges and Possibilities for Smallholders in Developing Countries

2012   |    Joonkoo Lee, Gary Gereffi, Janet Beauvais

The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agri-food safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. Part of the Special Feature on “Agriculture Development and Nutrition Security.”

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Vol. 109, No. 31, p. 12326-12331  View PDF   View Publication

The Marketing and Distribution of Fast Food

2010   |    Michelle Christian, Gary Gereffi

This chapter seeks to advance the multi-level approach to studying childhood obesity by focusing on the "macro" level of corporations in the global economy. We use a global value chains (GVC) framework to explain how the structure of food and agricultural value chains, with an emphasis on the fast-food segment, affects individual consumption choices.

Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment Pp. 439- 450 in Michael Freemark (ed.) New York: Humana Press.  View Publication

Trade, Transnational Corporations and Food Consumption: A Global Value Chain Approach

2010   |    Gary Gereffi, Michelle Christian

This paper explores the connections between the spread of obesity, especially in developing countries, and the interrelated expansion of trade, foreign direct investment, and transnational corporations (TNCs). The authors outline how the main concepts and methods of global value chains analysis can be applied to identify the direct and indirect linkages between the global economic processes of trade, foreign and direct investment, and food consumption.

Trade, Food, Diet and Health: Perspectives and Policy Options Pp. 91-110 in Corinna Hawkes, Chantal Blouin, Spencer Henson, Nick Drager, and Laurette Dubé (eds.), Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell  View Chapter

U.S.-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets

2009   |    Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee, Michelle Christian

This paper outlines the global value chains (GVCs) of the chicken and tomato industries, showing how these industries have changed over time, who is driving that change, and how different segments of the value chain affect healthy diets and impact low-income populations. The authors specifically address how the lead firms in the global value chains of the chicken and tomato industries are a part of the processed food revolution and how this potentially impacts low-income communities.

Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition 4(3), p. 357-374  View PDF   View Publisher's Website

A Global Value Chain Approach to Food Safety and Quality Standards

2009   |    Gary Gereffi, Joonkoo Lee

Report prepared for the Global Health Diplomacy for Chronic Disease Protection Working Paper Series   View PDF

A Global Value Chains Approach to Food, Healthy Diets, and Childhood Obesity

2007   |    Gary Gereffi, Michelle Christian

A challenge associated with the nutrition transition in developing countries (i.e.,simultaneous presence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition, both being most prevalent in the poorest population segments) is the integration of their markets into the global economy. This integration determined rapid and strong changes in the production and trade of agricultural goods in the developing countries as well as growing foreign direct investments in food processing and retailing, and the expansion of food advertisements with obvious implications for dietary patterns and the risk of obesity.

Conference paper for the WHO Early-Stage Expert Meeting on Trade and Healthy Diets November 12-13, 2007 at the Executive Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada  View PDF